For more details, the following will explain the factors that influence the distribution of flora and fauna in the world. The growth and development of flora and fauna in the world cannot be separated from biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors here are physical factors such as humans, animals and plants while abiotic factors are non-physical factors such as climate, weather, humidity, rainfall and others. The following is an explanation of the factors that influence the distribution of flora and fauna:
This climate factor also consists of rainfall, sunshine, humidity and wind. There are some plants that can only live in the presence of sunlight throughout the year, require a lot of water so rainfall is very important, humidity is related to how plants grow and wind is useful for the pollination process, so this climatic factor has more influence on the growth process than the flora or fauna itself. If the flora and fauna match the climate of the area then they will survive. But if they don’t match, they will lose to natural selection.
The division of climate in Indonesia, for example in tropical climates, is found in green plants that contain lots of chlorophyll. This chlorophyll formation really needs help from sunlight and in Indonesia the sun is available all year round. It is different with date palms or cacti that can live in hot areas because they have a high water supply system. for fauna too, try to imagine what would happen if the polar bear was in the desert? Yes, they will not survive because polar bears have thick fur that functions to warm their bodies, whereas if they are in the desert they will lose by temperature and will burn themselves.
Soil has a chemical composition which is very influential on growth, especially for plants. In the soil there are organisms, water content, water circulation which will affect the sustainability of flora and fauna. For example, in the area of East Nusa Tenggara, which has a variety of savanna as the dominant plant growing because the soil there is dry so that it has many ways to fertilize the soil so it is sufficient for flora growth.
There is a term saying that living things were created from water. Yes, the term is true. Water is a very important factor for the survival of living things, including flora and fauna. For flora, for example, water is a source that can drain their food source in the soil. This is evident in the distribution of seasons in the tropics, the biodiversity will be greater than in dry and hot areas such as in the Arabian Peninsula where there are very few plants and animals.
The topography or high and low of a place is closely related to the air temperature. Places that are higher than sea level will have lower temperatures. This also greatly affects the growth and distribution of flora and fauna. Flora in cold areas, for example, such as tea, strawberry, carica, wijaya kusuma flower, edelweiss flower, are very suitable for living in cold areas. If strawberries are planted in hot areas, they may grow but the quality will not be as good as where planted in the area it should be.
If there is someone who plays an important role in the distribution of flora and fauna in the world, maybe the answer is humans. Have you ever seen camels in Indonesia? or penguin? Cactus? Even a date palm? If they come naturally through natural factors it will probably happen but it is very unlikely. Well, because humans are finally able to take them to other areas such as camels in zoos, date palms from Arabia and many others. Humans can also change certain places to change the varieties in it, for example, forest land is turned into plantations or rice fields. Apart from humans, other living things that can contribute to spreading flora are animals. For example a bird eats a guava fruit and the bird moves to another area and defecates in that area, it is possible that a guava tree will grow through the seeds in the bird’s feces.
Currently, there are several types of flora and fauna in the world that are starting to be displaced because of greedy human activity. Clearing forests used for agriculture makes animals and plants disappear. If this continues, it will be very bad for the balance of nature. Remember that between humans, animals and plants, these three have a bond of dependence on each other. So that if there is destruction of their habitat, humans must be aware of themselves to protect and preserve flora and fauna.
Benefits of flora and fauna for humans
There is no doubt that flora and fauna have an important role for human life. Not only real humans, but between humans, animals and plants, these three have an inseparable dependence on one another. If one of the three is disturbed, the lives of the other two will be disturbed and humans must care for and understand the function of the environment properly.
• As a consumption
The existence of flora and fauna in the world was created for humans. Humans always need food from plants and animals. Plants as a source of vitamins, carbohydrates and animals as the main source of protein. By consuming plants and animals humans can maintain their survival.
• Educational and research objectives
Plants and animals can serve as a variety of educational and research purposes, especially if in the place of nature conservation, especially wildlife and the function of protected forests as well as the function of mangroves which play an important role in the life of flora and fauna
• Recreation areas
There are several places that have a diversity of flora and fauna that can be used as recreational destinations, such as cultural reserves, wildlife parks and nature reserves. Or you can also visit a zoo, so you no longer need to go to the native flora and fauna habitat, which may be in other parts of the world.